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China's Child Development Makes Progress: Report
Source:Chinese Women's Research Network | Release Date:2018-12-19-
Title: China's Child Development Makes Progress: Report
Author: Wang Yue
Source: China Women's News
Release Date: 2018/12/14
Keyword: China, Child Development, Progress
 

The National Bureau of Statistics of China recently released a report on the achievements that have been made in health, education, welfare, social environment and legal protection for children in 2017 following the National Program for Child Development (2011-2020).

Statistics indicate that the implementation of the program has been smooth and several indicators have been met ahead of schedule, while the protection of children's rights and interests in some areas still needs to be strengthened.

Health

First, quality of life for children rose steadily. Last year, the mortality rate of infants and children under-five was 6.8 per 1,000 and 9.1 per 1,000, decreased by 6.3 per 1,000 and 7.3 per 1,000 respectively from 2010.

Second, the majority of children are in good health. The proportion of underweight births last year was 2.88 percent, 1.12 percent below the target specified by the program. The rate of underweight children under five was 1.4 percent and the anemia incidence rate was 5.4 percent. Both of these figures show that targets have been fulfilled ahead of schedule.

Besides, the nation advocates breastfeeding and the breastfeeding rate of infants under six months reached 75.4 percent, far above the target of 50 percent.

Third, child planned vaccination rate have remained high. Last year, the rate of vaccination for tuberculosis and polio have remained above 99 percent.

Fourth, the mortality rate of injuries among children has decreased. The injury mortality rate of children under 18 was 13.18 per 100,000, falling some 9.23 per 100,000 compared to 2010.

Education

First, the country has given priority to preschool education. There were 255,000 kindergartens in total in 2017, with 46 million students in school, up 54.5 percent from 2010. The gross enrollment rate of students reached 79.6 percent, an increase of some 23 percent from 2010.

Second, compulsory education has received growing popularity. The consolidation rate of nine-year compulsory education reached 93.8 percent, up 2.7 percent from 2010.

Education now covers all school-age children. Meanwhile, the gross enrollment rate of students in junior middle schools reached 100 percent and the enrollment rate of primary school-age children reached 99.9 percent.

Third, special education has developed rapidly. As of 2017, there were 2,107 special education schools nationwide, an increase of 401 schools and accordingly some 23.5 percent compared to 2010. There were 579,000 students who received special education in schools as of last year.

Fourth, high school education has constantly developed. The gross enrollment rate of students in high schools reached 88.3 percent in 2017, up 5.8 percent from 2010, and there were about 1.77 million teachers, 256,000 over that of 2010.

Child, Welfare

First, the number of childcare and protection institutions have increased. As of 2017, China has 663 child adoption and assistance agencies, including 469 child welfare institutions and 194 rescue and protection center for minors, an increase of 134 and 49 respectively from 2010.

Second, the number of orphans has decreased for five consecutive years, with 410,000 in total in 2017, a decrease by 51,000 orphans from the previous year.

Third, rehabilitation services for children with disabilities have improved. Several relevant programs have been implemented to further improve the rehabilitation system, which will help children recover.

Last year, a total of 8,334 rehabilitation institutions have been built, an increase from 476 in the previous year, and 141,000 physically-impaired children under six have received basic rehabilitation services.

Environment

First, the state has intensified environmental governance and the environmental quality has been notably improved. China has invested more funds to curb environmental pollution, increase green coverage, treat urban sewage, provide water resources to rural areas and build ecological, sanitary toilets in the country.

Second, the government has integrated community resources to establish child activity centers and set up social workers' teams to better serve children. There were 185,000 children's centers across the country in 2017 and 38,000 professional social workers with certificates in grassroots organizations.

Third, more cultural products were provided for children. The number of children journals and books increased. More radio, TV programs are being made and more juveniles visiting museums.

Legal Protection

First, the legal system on children's rights protection has been improved. The General Provisions of the Civil Law of the People's Republic of China came into force last year, in which several provisions involved the standardization and protection of minors' civil rights and obligations.

Another regulation adopted the same year also provided strong guarantees for curbing the trafficking of women and children.

Second, efforts to fight crimes against children have achieved significant effects. Relevant departments have cooperated to implement the Internet Plus Anti-trafficking plan and track missing children.

Third, children can benefit from more legal assistance. The government has promoted the construction of public legal service systems, providing further services for people with the special "12348" hotline.

Last year, a total of 145,000 minors received assistance from legal institutions, an increase of 57,000 persons (65.4 percent) compared to 2010, according to statistics.

Fourth, crimes committed by minors have been controlled. The number of minor delinquents and the criminal rate of minors have both decreased. Besides, the proportion of juvenile delinquents in all perpetrators has decreased.

Problems, Challenges

The sex ratio at birth in China is still higher than the upper limit level of international standards.

There is still a long way to go to meet parents' ever-growing demands for high-quality education in kindergartens although the problem of enrolling children in kindergartens has been basically resolved.

(Source: China Women's News/Translated and edited by Women of China)
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