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Subject: Absorbing Women's Movement Experience in Anti Japanese Base Areas and Promoting Women's Cause Development
Category: 国内
Author: Fan Hongxia
Time: May 25, 2017
Source: China Women's Studies Network
Keyword: Anti-Japanese base areas; women's movement experience; women's cause development
Full text:
After the Anti-Japanese war broke out, the Communist Party adjusted outline of women’s movement to unite all the resistance forces by putting forward the goal to "strive for equality in politics, economy, culture instead of striving for the democracy and freedom, improve and enhance women’s status, and fight against all the feudal bondage and oppression" and "mobilize women to participate in the Anti-Japanese war force". Women took practical action to defend the nation and national dignity, making women's war heroic chapter and a great contribution to the victory of Anti Japanese War and the world anti fascist war. However, due to the changing situation in the war and lack of experience in women's movement in rural areas led to deviations and mistakes in the organization work. The party and the government timely adjusted policies and measures, made a clear direction of the women's movement to remedy defects and rectify errors. The experience and lessons of women's movement in the base areas still have enlightenment and significance to the current women's movement in china.

I. Problems arising in women's movements in the Anti Japanese base areas
1. Feminist bias led to the isolation of women's movements
Women's movement was carried out by feminist in isolation. It never probe into the origin of women's oppression from the social and economic conditions, but simply liberated women from men and family, highlighting the contradictions between women and family and leading to conflicts between two genders.
2. Subjectivism and formalism made it difficult for women to carry out their work.
Subjectivism and formalism were obvious in women's work in the base areas before the rectification movement, which affected the further development of women’s work. Women's work were mainly carried out by Women's National Salvation Society led by the Party. However, the Society made mistakes in developing the organization. For example, they forced women who were of the right age join in it. Some women cadres only shouted for the war of resistance, but didn't know what women could do and what must be done.
3. Departing from the masses, and losing the mass base
In the early stage after the establishment of the base, women cadres were from the city. They wore skirt, long dress, high-heel shoes, creating an aristocratic atmosphere, which rural people could not understand, and stayed away from them. Some women cadres lack the awareness of masses, losing the mass basis for women's work.
4. Sectarianism destroyed women's united front
Sectarianism in the women's movement mainly happened between young women and elderly women. Young women took the revenge for older women in handling the conflict between mother-in-law and daughter-in-law. Sometimes the mother-in-law would be denounced by the Society for slight complains about their daughter-in-law, which caused intense family relations, misunderstanding and even alienation from masses, adversely affecting the overall situation of Anti-Japanese war.

II Adjustment of Relevant Policies by the CPC
1. Changing the work style and ways
Based on thorough investigation and study on women's work and life, the CPC Central Committee issued "Decision on Current Policy of Women's Work at the Anti Japanese Base" in 1943. It was a review of the past mistakes and deficiencies and a turning point for the CPC to adjust the work style and ways. It set the goal of women’s work to moblize women to participate production, which is conducive to men's interests, helped developing the economy, increasing family income, raising the status of women in family and reducing the resistance from the family in women's liberation.
2. Building a united front and carrying out the construction of a harmonious family
In view of the tense family relations, the government proposed the establishment of the united front and the slogan for "family harmony", advocated democracy and solidarity within the family and emphasized striving for personal and family interests in economy.

III. Experience and Enlightenment
The experience of women's movement in the base area tells us that, first of all, we must uphold the leadership of the party, persist in the mass line, and avoid gentrification and formalism. Women cadres should learn from the masses, understand local women's life habits, stand with the masses, and not let the people feel women cadres are special and superior; knew their urgent needs, improved their lives, relieved their pain and did not do political preaching.
Secondly, family harmony is still important for women's liberation. The construction of a harmonious family is not a one-sided emphasis on women's dedication and sacrifice. Women should play their part as a good mother, wife and daughter while men also do a good father and son, to establish equality between men and women. Both men and women respect each other and share family responsibility.
Finally, from the gender perspective, men and women need to work together to realize gender equality, because men can not be completely liberated without the liberation of women. At the same time, women in different classes have different interests and interests, and have more common interests with the men of their stratum. Therefore, women's movements can not be carried out in isolation.
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